TMS and Mindfulness Training in Mental Health

Mental health is a vital part of human well-being that affects every aspect of our lives, from our emotions and relationships to our physical health and productivity. However, many people struggle with mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, stress, and trauma, which can impair their functioning and quality of life. There is a need for effective interventions that can help people cope with their mental health challenges and enhance their well-being. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Mindfulness Training are two potential interventions that have shown promising results in treating various mental health conditions. TMS is a non-invasive technique that uses magnetic pulses to stimulate specific regions of the brain that are involved in mood regulation, cognition, and behavior. Mindfulness Training is a practice that involves paying attention to the present moment with openness, curiosity, and acceptance, which can help reduce negative emotions, increase self-awareness, and improve coping skills. This article will provide an overview of the current research on TMS and mindfulness training as interventions for mental health.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that uses magnetic fields to induce an electric current in the underlying brain tissue. TMS can be applied to different regions of the brain depending on the target symptoms and the desired effects. It is believed that TMS can affect the activity and connectivity of neural circuits that are involved in mood, cognition, and behavior. TMS can either increase or decrease the activity of neurons depending on the frequency, intensity, and duration of the stimulation. TMS can also induce neuroplasticity, which is the ability of the brain to change and adapt in response to experience. Several studies and meta-analyses have supported the effectiveness of TMS in mental health treatment, especially for major depressive disorder (MDD). TMS has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms, improve remission rates, and enhance quality of life in patients with MDD who have failed to respond to antidepressant medication or psychotherapy. TMS has also been investigated for other mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, with varying degrees of evidence and outcomes.

Mindfulness & Interventions


One definition of mindfulness is the practice of openly attending, with awareness, to the experience of the present moment without judgment or distraction.1 This awareness of the present moment is different than how most people experience daily life, in which thoughts often wander, are automatic, or are repressed. Mindless states have been found to predict unhappiness later in life while the capacity to be mindful has been associated with higher well-being.1

Mindfulness training has gained significant attention in the field of mental health as a potential intervention for improving various psychological outcomes. Mindfulness training refers to a form of mental exercise that involves cultivating present-moment awareness and non-judgmental acceptance of one’s thoughts, emotions, and bodily sensations.2 It is often practiced through various mindfulness-based interventions, such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). These interventions typically involve structured programs that combine mindfulness meditation practices, body awareness exercises, and cognitive strategies to promote intentionality, self-awareness, emotional regulation.3 Research has shown that mindfulness training can have a positive impact on mental health outcomes. Studies have demonstrated that mindfulness training is associated with reductions in symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress.4 It has also been found to improve overall well-being, quality of life, and social functioning.3 Mindfulness training has also been shown to enhance cognitive processes, such as attention regulation, working memory, and divergent thinking.5,6

One way mindfulness training has been proposed to improve mental health is by the cultivation of attention regulation and meta-awareness, which allows individuals to observe their thoughts and emotions without judgment and to disengage from automatic and maladaptive patterns of thinking.7 Mindfulness training has also been found to enhance emotion regulation processes, such as cognitive reappraisal (changing the way one thinks about a situation) and perspective-taking, which can lead to reduced emotional reactivity and increased emotional well-being.8 Mindfulness has also been found to have a positive influence on health behaviors, such as eating, sleeping, substance use, and overall well-being.9 Furthermore, mindfulness training has been associated with changes in brain activity and connectivity, particularly in regions involved in attention, emotion regulation, and self-awareness. The effectiveness of mindfulness training in improving mental health outcomes is supported by a growing body of research.

Combining TMS and Mindfulness for Greater Impact


Combining TMS and mindfulness training may lead to greater effects on mental health. TMS has the potential to enhance the effectiveness of mindfulness training by modifying neural activity in specific brain regions associated with attention regulation, emotion processing, and self-awareness, which are key components of mindfulness practice.10 By stimulating these regions, TMS may facilitate the development of mindfulness skills and deepen the one’s ability to engage in present-moment awareness and non-judgmental acceptance.

A growing body of research suggests that when combined, TMS and mindfulness training can improve the effectiveness of treatment for mental health conditions. A pilot study explored the combination of audio-guided mindfulness meditation with TMS for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder over five weeks. Comparing scores pre- and post- mindfulness training and TMS, perceived stress was significantly diminished, and quality of life and multiple aspects of mindfulness were significantly enhanced. The study found that the addition of mindfulness meditation during TMS sessions was well-tolerated and resulted in reduced depressive symptoms and increased mindfulness skills.10 This suggests that the combination of TMS and mindfulness training may have a synergistic effect in enhancing treatment outcomes. Another study looked at mindfulness decompression therapy and TMS in Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Mindfulness decompression therapy involves using mindfulness techniques to relieve stress, disease, and pain. In this study, patients were divided into two groups. Both groups received TMS and the research group additionally received mindfulness decompression therapy that included meditation, mindful breathing exercises, mindful yoga, and mindful walking. The intervention lasted for 30 minutes, two to three times a day, for four weeks. They found that although TMS alone significantly reduced anxiety symptoms, TMS combined with mindfulness improved symptoms to a greater degree. The researchers suggested that TMS with mindfulness can more effectively improve nervous system activity in Generalized Anxiety Disorder.11

Combining TMS and mindfulness training in mental health treatment may lead to greater effects than either alone. TMS has the potential to enhance the effectiveness of mindfulness training by influencing neural activity in key brain regions associated with mindfulness practice. Evidence suggests that the combination of TMS and mindfulness training can result in improved treatment outcomes, including reduced depressive symptoms, reduced anxiety, and increased mindfulness skills. Studies call for future research to examine longer-term outcomes. Further research is needed to explore the specific biological mechanisms underlying these synergistic effects and to optimize the integration of TMS and mindfulness training in clinical practice.

Mindfulness training is a cognitive-behavioral exercise that involves cultivating present-moment awareness and non-judgmental acceptance. Mindfulness has been found to have positive effects on mental health outcomes, including reductions in symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress. Mindfulness training can enhance cognitive processes, improve overall well-being, and promote physical health. Mindfulness training improves mental health through the practice of attention and emotion regulation, which results in changes in brain activity and connectivity. These mechanisms overlap with TMS, which can be used to target brain regions associated with attention, emotion processing, and self-awareness. Indeed, early research shows that TMS and mindfulness together can improve the efficacy of treatment for mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression above and beyond that of either alone. The combination of TMS and mindfulness holds promise as a multi-faceted approach to enhancing outcomes, offering a potential breakthrough in addressing a variety of mental health conditions and improving well-being.


  1. Creswell, J. D.. (2017). Mindfulness Interventions. Annual Review of Psychology68(1), 491–516.
  2. Bishop, S., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N., Carmody, J., … & Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition.. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230-241.
  3. Vibe, M., Bjørndal, A., Fattah, S., Dyrdal, G., Halland, E., & Tanner-Smith, E. (2017). Mindfulness‐based stress reduction (mbsr) for improving health, quality of life and social functioning in adults: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 13(1), 1-264.
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  6. Colzato, L. S. and Öztürk, A. (2012). Meditate to create: the impact of focused-attention and open-monitoring training on convergent and divergent thinking. Frontiers in Psychology, 3.
  7. Dahl, C. J., Lutz, A., & Davidson, R. J. (2015). Reconstructing and deconstructing the self: cognitive mechanisms in meditation practice. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19(9), 515-523.
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  10. Cavallero, F., Gold, M., Tirrell, E., Kokdere, F., Donachie, N., Steinfink, D., … & Carpenter, L. L. (2021). Audio-guided mindfulness meditation during transcranial magnetic stimulation sessions for the treatment of major depressive disorder: a pilot feasibility study. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.
  11. Gao, L., Xie, J., Huang, T., Shang, Y., & Gao, Z. (2021). Effects of mindfulness decompression therapy combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation in generalized anxiety disorder. American journal of translational research13(6), 6827–6836.

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